Wod Rome Forsaken

Italic Peoples


The rise of Rome as by far the most populous and powerful Latin state from ca. 600 BC led to volatile relations with the other Latin states, which numbered around 14 in 500 BC. In the period of the Tarquin monarchy (ca. 550-500 BC), it appears that Rome acquired political hegemony over the other states. After the fall of the Roman monarchy in ca. 500 BC, there appears to have been a century of military alliance between Rome and the other Latins to confront the threat posed to all Latium by raiding by the surrounding Italic mountain-tribes, especially the Volsci and Aequi. This system progressively broke down after ca. 390 BC, when Rome's aggressive expansionism led to conflict with other Latin states, both individually and collectively. In 341-338 BC, the Latin states jointly fought the Latin War against Rome in a final attempt to preserve their independence. The war resulted in 338 BC in a decisive Roman victory. The other Latin states were either annexed, or permanently subjugated to Rome.

Related to the Latins, and sharing some language in common, were the Falisci. Often allied with the Etruscans, the Falisci resisted Rome for long time during its early rise. They were allied with Veii when it was defeated in 396 BC and in the aftermath Falerii was occupied by the victorious Romans. When in 358 Tarquinia rebelled, the Falisci again took arms against Rome, but were again crushed c. 351 BC. This time an alliance was signed between the contenders, and a Roman garrison was settled in Falerii. The Falisci also took advantage of the First Punic War to declare their independence, but their revolt ended in 241 BC with the death of 15,000 Falisci and the destruction of Falerii; the survivors were moved to a less defendable city, Falerii Novi.


The region of Umbria included a number of different tribes, including the Umbri for whom the region was named. The groups were also called the Sabellians, which did not confuse the region with the specific tribe. The Romans first made contact with Umbria in 310 BC and settled Latin colonies there in 299 BC, 268 BC and 241 BC. They had completed their conquest of Umbria by approximately 260 BC. Incorporation into the Roman state occurred during the 3rd century BC when some Umbri were given full citizenship or citizenship without the right to vote. Also during the 3rd century BC about 40,000 Romans settled in the region. The Via Flaminia linking areas of Umbria was complete by 220 BC. Cities in Umbria also contributed troops to Rome for its many wars.

The Marsi are first mentioned as members of a confederacy with the Vestini, Paeligni and Marrucini. They joined the Samnites in 308 BC, and, on their submission, became allies of Rome in 304 BC. After a short-lived revolt two years later, for which they were punished by loss of territory, they were readmitted to the Roman alliance and remained faithful down to the Social War, their contingent being always regarded as the flower of the Italian forces. In this war, which, owing to the prominence of the Marsian rebels is often known as the Marsic War, they fought bravely against odds under their leader Q. Pompaedius Silo, and, though they were frequently defeated, the result of the war was the enfranchisement of the allies. The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the northwest corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that from the beginning of the 3rd century, the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli (298 BC) farther west. The earliest pure Latin inscriptions of the district seem to be C.I.L. ix. 3827 and 3848 from the neighbourhood of Supinum; its character generally is of the Gracchan period, though it might be somewhat earlier.

The Volsci were among the most dangerous enemies of ancient Rome, and frequently allied with the Aequi, whereas their neighbours the Hernici from 486 BC onwards were the allies of Rome. According to Rome's early semi-legendary history, Rome's seventh and last king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the first to go to war against the Volsci, commencing two centuries of a relationship of conflict between the two states. Prior to the Romans' war with the Etruscans, the Volsci grew increasingly aggressive and disrupted trade through the Italian peninsula which served to further destabilize the region during Rome's early days. This continued until the war with Rome that firmly established Rome's dominance over the Volsci.


Related to the Sabellians of Umbria, the Oscan-speaking tribes of central Italy included a number of important nations. The Marrucini were an Italic tribe which occupied a small strip of territory around the ancient Teate (modern Chieti), on the east coast of Abruzzo, Italy, limited by the Aterno and Foro Rivers. Other Marrucini centers included Ceio (San Valentino in Abruzzo Citeriore), Iterpromium (whose ruins are under the Abbey of San Clemente at Casauria), Civitas Danzica (Rapino), and the port of Aternum (Pescara), shared with the Vestini.

The Osci, who gave their name to the language shared by all the tribes,

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